Human Exposure to Naturally Occurring Bacillus anthracis in the Kars Region of Eastern Türkiye

Environmental contamination with Bacillus anthracis spores poses uncertain threats to human health. We undertook a study to determine whether inhabitants of the anthrax-endemic region of Kars in eastern Türkiye could develop immune responses to anthrax toxins without recognised clinical infection. We measured anti-PA and anti-LF IgG antibody concentrations by ELISA in serum from 279 volunteers, 105 of whom had previously diagnosed anthrax infection (100 cutaneous, 5 gastrointestinal). Of the 174 without history of infection, 72 had prior contact with anthrax-contaminated material. Individuals were classified according to demographic parameters, daily working environment, and residence type. All villages in this study had recorded previous animal or human anthrax cases. Stepwise regression analyses showed that prior clinical infection correlated strongly with concentrations at the upper end of the ranges observed for both antibodies. For anti-PA, being a butcher and duration of continuous exposure risk correlated with high concentrations, while being a veterinarian or shepherd, time since infection, and town residence correlated with low concentrations. For anti-LF, village residence correlated with high concentrations, while infection limited to fingers or thumbs correlated with low concentrations. Linear discriminant analysis identified antibody concentration profiles associated with known prior infection. Profiles least typical of prior infection were observed in urban dwellers with known previous infection and in veterinarians without history of infection. Four individuals without history of infection (two butchers, two rural dwellers) had profiles suggesting unrecognised prior infection. Healthy humans therefore appear able to tolerate low-level exposure to environmental B. anthracis spores without ill effect, but it remains to be determined whether this exposure is protective. These findings have implications for authorities tasked with reducing the risk posed to human health by spore-contaminated materials and environments.

Keyword: bacillus anthracis; clinical infection; endemic anthrax; human serology; Kars region; lethal factor; occupational exposure; protective antigen

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infection concentrations correlated without exposure anthrax clinical history residence anthracis anti-PA anti-LF antibody protective profiles previous region spores whether health observed individuals veterinarians dwellers butchers typical Linear Profiles thumbs associated concentration identified village limited analysis
Tam metin
Detaylı Görünüm
Yayın Adı
(dc.title)
Human Exposure to Naturally Occurring Bacillus anthracis in the Kars Region of Eastern Türkiye
Yazar/lar
(dc.contributor.yazarlar)
Fatih Buyuk, Hugh Dyson, Thomas R. Laws, Ozgur Celebi, Mehmet Doganay, Mitat Sahin, Les Baillie
Yayın Türü
(dc.type)
Makale
Dil
(dc.language)
İngilizce
Yayımlanma Yılı
(dc.date.issued)
2024
Ulusal/Uluslararası
(dc.identifier.ulusaluluslararasi)
Uluslararası
Kaynak
(dc.relation.journal)
Microorganisms
Süreli Sayı
(dc.identifier.issue)
1
Cilt/Sayı
(dc.identifier.volume)
12
Sayfa
(dc.identifier.startpage)
Article Number: 167
ISSN/ISBN
(dc.identifier.issn)
Online ISSN: 2076-2607
Yayıncı
(dc.publisher)
MDPI, Switzerland
Veri Tabanları
(dc.contributor.veritaban)
Web of Science Core Collection
Veri Tabanları
(dc.contributor.veritaban)
MDPI
Veri Tabanları
(dc.contributor.veritaban)
Scopus
İndex Türü
(dc.identifier.index)
SCI Expanded
İndex Türü
(dc.identifier.index)
Scopus
Etki Faktörü
(dc.identifier.etkifaktoru)
4,5 / 2022-WOS / Son 5 yıl: 4,8
Özet
(dc.description.abstract)
Environmental contamination with Bacillus anthracis spores poses uncertain threats to human health. We undertook a study to determine whether inhabitants of the anthrax-endemic region of Kars in eastern Türkiye could develop immune responses to anthrax toxins without recognised clinical infection. We measured anti-PA and anti-LF IgG antibody concentrations by ELISA in serum from 279 volunteers, 105 of whom had previously diagnosed anthrax infection (100 cutaneous, 5 gastrointestinal). Of the 174 without history of infection, 72 had prior contact with anthrax-contaminated material. Individuals were classified according to demographic parameters, daily working environment, and residence type. All villages in this study had recorded previous animal or human anthrax cases. Stepwise regression analyses showed that prior clinical infection correlated strongly with concentrations at the upper end of the ranges observed for both antibodies. For anti-PA, being a butcher and duration of continuous exposure risk correlated with high concentrations, while being a veterinarian or shepherd, time since infection, and town residence correlated with low concentrations. For anti-LF, village residence correlated with high concentrations, while infection limited to fingers or thumbs correlated with low concentrations. Linear discriminant analysis identified antibody concentration profiles associated with known prior infection. Profiles least typical of prior infection were observed in urban dwellers with known previous infection and in veterinarians without history of infection. Four individuals without history of infection (two butchers, two rural dwellers) had profiles suggesting unrecognised prior infection. Healthy humans therefore appear able to tolerate low-level exposure to environmental B. anthracis spores without ill effect, but it remains to be determined whether this exposure is protective. These findings have implications for authorities tasked with reducing the risk posed to human health by spore-contaminated materials and environments.
Özet
(dc.description.abstract)
Keyword: bacillus anthracis; clinical infection; endemic anthrax; human serology; Kars region; lethal factor; occupational exposure; protective antigen
URL
(dc.rights)
https://www.mdpi.com/2076-2607/12/1/167
DOI
(dc.identifier.doi)
10.3390/microorganisms12010167
Fakültesi / Enstitütü
(dc.identifier.fakulte)
Veteriner Fakültesi
Bölümü
(dc.identifier.bolum)
Veteriner
Kurumdaki Yazar/lar
(dc.contributor.author)
Mitat ŞAHİN
Kayıt No
(dc.identifier.kayitno)
BL5DDF3C28
Kayıt Giriş Tarihi
(dc.date.available)
2024-02-06
Not (Yayımlanma Yılı)
(dc.identifier.notyayinyili)
January 2024
Wos No
(dc.identifier.wos)
WOS:001153050900001
Konu Başlıkları
(dc.subject)
bacillus anthracis
Konu Başlıkları
(dc.subject)
clinical infection
Konu Başlıkları
(dc.subject)
endemic anthrax
Konu Başlıkları
(dc.subject)
human serology
Konu Başlıkları
(dc.subject)
Kars region
Konu Başlıkları
(dc.subject)
lethal factor
Konu Başlıkları
(dc.subject)
occupational exposure
Konu Başlıkları
(dc.subject)
protective antigen
Analizler
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Yayın Görüntülenme
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